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How A Bill Becomes a Law: Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution

The Constitution’s Article I, Section 7 defines the process by which the federal government passes laws. Section 7 opens with the Origination Clause which requires “Bills for raising Revenue” to originate in the House of Representatives. The second clause and third clauses are known as both the “Presentment Clause” and “Lawmaking Clause”. The Presentment Clause is […]

Tenth Amendment and Nursing Equals The Most Respected Profession

The United States Constitution has many 21st century impacts on our daily lives that are almost never thought about.  At a time of growing federal regulation of our lives, there remain areas of life where the 10th Amendment, reserving power to the states is alive and well. The nursing profession is among them. Due to […]

Treason: The Only Crime Defined in the US Constitution

The commitment of America’s Founders to the rule of law appears in many elements of the Constitution. The fact that Treason is the only crime defined[1] in the Constitution is among those elements. Article III, Section 3 provides that: “Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering […]

Understanding the US Constitution’s Preamble

“We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.” The Preamble has […]

Why the United States was Designed as a Republic

Ben Franklin famously replied when asked about the government that was created by the Constitution: “A republic, if you can keep it.” “Democracy ” Not In Any Founding Document  The US is a Constitutional Republic, not a “democracy.” No American founding document, not the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, or the Constitution mentions […]

Checks and Balances, Protecting Liberty Beyond Separation of Powers

The Founding Fathers were extremely suspicious of the concentration of government power in a single person or small group of people. To protect against concentrated power they designed the Constitution to separate the powers of government into three branches: legislative, executive and judicial, and divided sovereignty between the federal government and the states. For the […]

New Hampshire Ratifies June 21, 1788 and Constitution Becomes Effective

On June 21, 1788. New Hampshire was the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution. Pursuant to the Constitution’s Article VII New Hampshire’s ratification put the Constitution officially in effect. Although New Hampshire ratified, the delegates to its ratification convention clearly had reservations. The ratification message included a dozen suggestions for constitutional amendments pursuant to Article […]

The Fourteenth Amendment’s Privileges OR Immunities Clause

The Supreme Court deserves the respect it earns.  When it fails to enforce the Constitution as it was written its credibility is strained.  Regarding the Fourteenth Amendment’s Privileges or Immunities Clause, it has been wrong for nearly 150 years. The Bill of Rights was ratified in 1791 in response to complaints that the original Constitution […]

The Fifth Amendment’s Due Process Clause, Descendant of the Magna Carta

 “No freemen shall be taken or imprisoned or disseised or exiled or in any way destroyed, nor will we go upon him nor send upon him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.” Magna Carta, Chapter 39, June 15, 1215 June 15, 2015 marks the 800th Anniversary […]

The Sixth Amendment’s Right to Confront Witnesses

Sir Walter Raleigh of the late 1500’s is known for a number of things.  He was a great explorer[1] of the New World, both North and South America. He is either credited or cursed for promoting tobacco in England.  He is cited as an example of the consummate gentleman for putting his cloak on a […]